What is pollution?Pollution is the presence of unwanted and dangerous pollutants into the environment. It affects our ecosystem adversely. Pollutants are caused by human activities mainly which include agricultural waste, burning of fuel, excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, smoke, mining activities, waste from industries, dust, harmful gases, solid waste like garbage. All these pollutants are produced by humans. Human activities like deforestation, industrialization, and urbanization have contaminated our environment. All natural resources like air, water, soil are polluted. This is an alarming situation which needs everyone's concern. This kind of rapid development, which is harming our natural resources is critical for future generations. Increasing pollution is changing the natural life cycle by affecting climatic conditions and weather. Impurities are present in all natural resources.
Types of pollution
Air, water, soil, and noise pollution are the major categories under pollution. There are no natural pure resources left behind. The different kinds of pollution have different causes and effects on our health and environment which is as follows:
- Air pollution - It is the most dangerous kind of pollution. It is caused due to the presence of poisonous gases and substances in the air. Most of the air pollution is due to poisonous from industries which release chemical substances in the air, burning garbage, mining activities, and smoke from transportation. Oxygen level in the air is reducing on a daily basis. Harmful gases like carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are covering the main proportion of air. When contaminated substances like smoke, dust and harmful gases enter the environment and pollute it. There is no fresh air to breathe. Humans are continuously breathing this contaminated air which results in health problems like lungs cancer and other respiratory problems. Acid rain and global warming are the consequences of air pollution.
- Water pollution - It is the most crucial natural resource on earth. Dumping liquid and solid waste directly into the water bodies like rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans without any treatment are the major issues of water pollution. The main causes include industrial waste, chemical substances, use of pesticides, dumping solid and chemical waste into water, and sewage problems. There is no pure form of drinking water left behind. Scarcity of drinking water is an alarming situation around the globe. Accelerated development is worsening the situation. Drinking polluted water can cause various water-borne diseases. Marine life is directly affected by water pollution. It's a threat to their life. Many species of flora and fauna are getting extinct day by day.
- Soil Pollution - Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides are the sources of soil pollution. To grow crops faster and in abundance, farmers are using these chemicals nowadays. Natural ways of growing crops are not practiced due to the change in climatic conditions. Adding all these chemicals in high ratio into the soil leads to pollution. It affects the growth of plants and crops. Consumption of this kind of crop can cause various health issues.
- Noise Pollution - It is caused by noise from machines in factories and industries, transportation vehicles, loudspeakers, excessive use of earphones or headphones, etc. This will cause stress and hearing impairment.
Ways to reduce pollution
- Aforestation or planting more trees - This is the best method to control pollution. As plants absorb carbon dioxide which is harmful gas and release oxygen. More plants mean more oxygen level in the air. Deforestation should be strictly avoided. Cutting trees for development should be controlled. Human awareness regarding the same should be taken as an initiative. The government should take serious steps toward this problem.
- Follow 3R's principle - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle refers to three 3R's. It should be followed throughout. Try to reduce the usage of natural resources and the amount of waste generated. Reusing things will also help. Try using things which can be reused for different purposes. Recycling waste materials to make new products should be done. Optimum use of resources will help everyone in the long run.
- Taking initiatives - Switching off the light when not in use, closing the open or leak taps, using sharing vehicles than personal ones, usage of bicycle for short distances, traveling by public transports than personal ones, avoid use of non-biodegradable substances like plastics, using eco-friendly biodegradable things on daily basis. Campaign programmes should be organized regularly to create awareness among common people.
- Sustainable Development - The development which can be achieved without harming our nature and its resources are sustainable development. This kind of development will meet the needs of the present without compromising on the needs of future generations. Humans are facing many challenges due to pollution. There is an urgent need for taking serious steps in this direction.
- Limited use of fertilizers - Use of harmful chemical substances like pesticides and insecticides should be restricted. Natural methods should be adopted for cultivation by farmers. The use of fertilizers made during the process of composting should be promoted. Composting is a process of making fertilizers by decomposing the waste, plants, and leaves. It helps in reducing soil and water pollution.
- Keep the environment clean - Keep your surroundings clean by putting the waste in a dustbin. Industrial waste should not be directly dumped into water bodies. Rather proper waste disposal system should be there.
We should take measures to control pollution on a daily basis. Our efforts can save our planet and its natural resources. We all should work to maintain our ecosystem balance. Let's protect our resources from depletion. "Save our mother earth, it will save everyone."
True lines by Christian de Duve
"The cost of our success is the exhaustion of natural resources, leading to energy crises, climate change, pollution, and the destruction of our habitat. If you exhaust natural resources, there will be nothing left for your children. If we continue in the same direction, humankind is headed for some frightful ordeals, if not extinction."